Sex and gender equitable research

Sex and gender differences are often overlooked in research design, study implementation and scientific reporting, as well as in scientific communication in general. This omission limits the possibility to generalize research findings and their applicability to clinical practice, particularly for women but also for men. This section deals with this topic.

Recommendations on research adapted to sex and gender

Sex and Gender in research involving humans according to the Human Research Act (HRA): Issues to consider.

This document reflects the swissethics recommendations on sex and gender in research involving humans according to the HRA.

updated: 17.04.2024

Sex and Gender in research involving humans according to the Human Research Act: Recommendation for the ethical review of research projects.

updated: 17.04.2024

Weblinks on the subject:

ICH Considerations: Sex-related Considerations in the Conduct of Clinical Trials, June 2009

European Institute of Women's Health: Sex and Gender Policy Briefs

US National Institutes of Health - Office of Research on Women's (ORWH)NIH Inclusion Outreach Toolkit


The SAGER Guidelines (Sex and Gender Equity in Research): Link to the guidelines

Webinar elucidating the importance of WHO's adoption of the SAGER guidelines, accompanied by a panel discussion expertly moderated by Dr. Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief of The Lancet. Link

European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA): Right from the start - Including more women in Clinical Trials. Link

CIOMS-GENDRO Meeting report February 2023: Sex and gender considerations in research: the role of research ethics guidelines and research ethics committees. Link

Why Diverse Clinical Trial Participation Matters, A.L Schwartz, N Engl J Med 2023; 388:1252-1254, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2215609. Link

Sex and gender in science: How to navigate a challenging are of reseach to the benefit of all, Nature, 2024, Link